Since the 1980s, the People's Republic of China has constructed a new legal framework for administrative law, establishing control mechanisms for overseeing the bureaucracy and disciplinary committees for the Communist Party of China. However, many have argued that the usefulness of these laws is vastly inadequate in terms of controlling government actions, largely because of institutional and systemic obstacles like a weak judiciary, poorly trained judges and lawyers, and corruption. In 1990, the Administrative Supervision Regulations 行政检查条例 and the Administrative Reconsideration Regulations 行政复议条例 were passed. The 1993 State Civil Servant Provisional Regulations 国家公务员暂行条例 changed the way government officials were selected and promoted, requiring that they pass exams and yearly appraisals, and introduced a rotation system. The three regulations have been amended and upgraded into laws. In 1994, the State Compensation Law 国家赔偿法 was passed, followed by the Administrative Penalties Law 行政处罚法 in 1996. Administrative Compulsory Law was enforced in 2012. Administrative Litigation Law was amended in 2014. The General Administrative Procedure Law is under way. In France, most claims against the national or local governments as well as claims against private bodies providing public services are handled by administrative courts, which use the Conseil d'État Council of State as a court of last resort for both ordinary and special courts. The main administrative courts are the tribunaux administratifs and appeal courts are the cours administratives d'appel. The elimination of under funding of the courts would definitely improve the efficiency of their work and be worthwhile. Lawyers refer to ‘the rule of law’ because a society which is governed without law leaves ordinary people at the mercy of the arbitrary abuse of power by those who are simply powerful. In some countries the rule of law is absent – think of Cambodia during the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, for example – and when that happens, life is very difficult for ordinary people who have no way of protecting themselves from the powerful. In societies where the rule of law exists, people may even be relatively unaware of it, because their life is not interfered with by corruption and abuse of power. Australia is a country where the rule of law mostly exists, and although its legal system is not perfect in every respect, it does restrain unfettered power in many respects. Lawyers can use the law to hold governments accountable.
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It is well known that Russian courts remain under funded.